Vaccine. 2017 Jun 28. pii: S0264-410X(17)30841-1. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.048. [Epub ahead of print]
The effect of pneumococcal vaccination is widely variable when measured by nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine and non-vaccine targets. The aim of this study was to compare the carriage rates and metabolic activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis among children who were or were not vaccinated with PCV10.
We included children with acute respiratory infection aged 6-23months from a cross-sectional study (CHIADO-IVAS). Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected and respiratory pathogens were quantified by nCounter digital transcriptomics (Nanostring) and metagenomic sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (Illumina). The metabolic rate was calculated by the ratio between RNA transcripts and 16S DNA reads.
Out of the 80 patients in this study, 53 were vaccinated with PCV10 and 27 were unvaccinated. There was no difference in nasopharyngeal carriage rates of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis by either transcriptomic analysis or 16S metagenomics. However, unvaccinated children presented a higher metabolic rate for S. pneumoniae compared to PCV10-vaccinated children (Median [25-75th percentiles]: 126 [22.75-218.41] vs. 0[0-47.83], p=0.004). Furthermore, unvaccinated children presented a positive correlation between mRNA counts and 16S DNA reads for S. pneumoniae (r=0.707; p<0.001) and H. influenzae (r=0.525; p=0.005), in contrast to vaccinated children. No such effect was observed for S. aureus and M. catarrhalis.
Vaccination by PCV10 exerts a pathogen-specific effect on pneumococcal metabolic rate. Pathogen RNA/DNA ratio might represent a more sensitive readout for vaccine follow-up, as compared to nasopharyngeal carriage.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Capsular polysaccharides; Metabolism; Nasopharyngeal colonization; Protein D
PMID: 28668567 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.048