Adv Microb Physiol. 2017;70:123-191. doi: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.002. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. S. pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that is carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx by up to 70% of the population; however, transition to internal sites can cause a range of diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and bacteraemia. S. pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for diseases ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo, to severe invasive infections. Both species have overlapping capacity with respect to metal acquisition, export and regulation and how metal homeostasis relates to their virulence and ability to invade and survive within the host. It is becoming more apparent that metals have an important role to play in the control of infection, and with further investigations, it could lead to the potential use of metals in novel antimicrobial therapies.
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Copper; Group A Streptococcus; Iron; Manganese; Metal homeostasis; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Streptococcus pyogenes; Zinc
PMID: 28528647 DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.002