PLoS One. 2017 Jun 2;12(6):e0179075. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179075. eCollection 2017.
Proteomic variation and diversity in clinical Streptococcus pneumoniaeisolates from invasive and non-invasive sites.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for a variety of invasive and non-invasive human infections. There are over 90 serotypes of S. pneumoniae differing in their ability to adapt to the different niches within the host. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to discriminate clinical S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from either blood cultures (invasive site isolates) or other sites, including sputum, tracheal aspirate, ear, eye and skin swabs (non-invasive site isolates). Global protein expression profiles for five invasive site and six non-invasive site isolates representing five different serotypes (serotypes 4, 6, 9, 14 and 23) were obtained for each isolate and combined into a single data set using Progenesis SameSpots™ software. One-hundred and eighty six protein spots (39% of the protein spots in the dataset) differed significantly (ANOVA, p<0.05) in abundance between the invasive site (101 upregulated protein spots) and non-invasive site (85 upregulated protein spots) isolates. Correlations between the bacterial proteomes and their sites of isolation were determined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using the significantly different protein spots. Out of the 186 variable protein spots, 105 exhibited a serotype-associated pattern of variability. The expression of the remaining 81 protein spots was concluded to be uniquely linked to the site of bacterial isolation. Mass spectrometry was used to identify selected protein spots that showed either constant or differential abundance levels. The identified proteins had a diverse range of functions including, capsule biogenesis, DNA repair, protein deglycation, translation, stress response and virulence as well as amino acid, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleotide metabolism. These findings provide insight on the proteins that contribute towards the adaptation of the bacteria to different sites within the host.