Vaccine. 2015 Dec 29. pii: S0264-410X(15)01839-3. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.12.042. [Epub ahead of print]

Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in an urban setting in Brazil prior to PCV10 introduction.

Menezes AP1, Azevedo J1, Leite MC2, Campos LC1, Cunha M3, Carvalho MD4, Reis MG1, Ko AI5, Weinberger DM6,Ribeiro G7, Reis JN8.

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Abstract

Information on pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccine period is essential to predict and assess the impact of PCV in settings where disease surveillance is particularly difficult. Therefore, we present data on pneumococcal carriage before the introduction of the 10-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in Brazil. We conducted a prospective study on a cohort of 203 children aged <5 years old, randomly selected in an urban community located in the periphery of the city of Salvador, Brazil and followed them from January/2008 to January/2009. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from each child at four times. In total, 721 swabs were collected, yielding a pneumococcal carriage prevalence of 55% (n=398). In multivariate analyses, the variables associated with carriage were having contact with three or more children <2 years old (OR, 2.00; 95% CI 1.33-2.89) and living in a house with an average of 3 residents per room (OR, 1.77; 95% CI 1.05-3.10). Also, white participants were more likely to be protected from colonization (OR, 0.52; 95% CI 0.29-0.93), and prevalence of carriage varied over time, with lower prevalence occurring from February to June (OR, 0.53; 95% CI 0.37-0.78) compared to July to January. Contact with children under 2 years of age and living in crowded housing also were associated with colonization by highly invasive serotypes, although this relationship was not significant. The most prevalent vaccine serotypes were 6A/B (25.4%), 19F (10.1%) and 14 (9.0%), while the most prevalent non-vaccine serotypes were 16F (4.8%), 15B/C (4.5%) and 6C/D (3.5%). Overall, 38.4% (153/398) of the isolates were non-susceptible to penicillin, and of those, 73.8% (113/153) were non-susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Colonization rate by PCV10 serotypes was 52.2%. Routine PCV10 vaccination can lead to significant changes in pneumococcal serotypes found in NP colonization, indicating a need for continued monitoring, especially in crowded settings, as occurs in Brazil's slums.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Children; Nasopharyngeal carriage; PCV10-vaccine; Serotypes; Streptococcus pneumoniae

PMID: 26742946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]