Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015 Nov 5:0. [Epub ahead of print]
All currently available Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) vaccines have limitations due to their capsular serotype composition. Both the 23-valent Spn polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and 7, 10, or 13-valent Spn conjugate vaccines (PCV-7, 10, -13) are serotype-based vaccines and therefore they elicit only serotype-specific immunity. Emergence of replacement Spn strains expressing other serotypes has consistently occurred following introduction of capsular serotype based Spn vaccines. Furthermore, capsular polysaccharide vaccines are less effective in protection against non-bacteremic pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) than against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). These shortcomings of capsular polysaccharide-based Spn vaccines has created high interest in development of non-serotype specific protein-based vaccines that could be effective in preventing both IPD and non-IPD infections. This review discusses the progress the progress to date on development of Spn protein vaccine candidates that are universally expressed by all Spn strains, are highly conserved, exhibit maximal antigenicity and minimal reactogenicity to replace or complement the current capsule-based vaccines. Key to development of a protein based Spn vaccine is an understanding of Spn pathogenesis. Based on pathogenesis, a protein-based Spn vaccine should include one or more ingredients that reduce NP colonization below a pathogenic inoculum. Elimination of all Spn colonization may not be achievable or even advisable. The level of expression of a target protein antigen during pathogenesis is another key to the success of protein based vaccines.. As with virtually all currently licensed vaccines, production of a serum antibody response in response to protein based vaccines is anticipated to provide protection from Spn infections. A significant advantage that protein vaccine formulations can offer over capsule based vaccination is their potential benefits associated with natural priming and boosting to all strains of Spn. One of the most universal and comprehensive approaches of identifying novel vaccine candidates is the investigation of human sera from different disease stages of natural infections. Antigens that are robustly reactive in preliminary human serum screening constitute a pathogen-specific antigenome. This strategy has identified a number of Spn protein vaccine candidates that are moving forward in human clinical trials.