Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Sep;94(39):e1562. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001562.

Characteristics and Outcome of Streptococcus pneumoniae Endocarditis in the XXI Century: A Systematic Review of 111 Cases (2000-2013).

de Egea V1, Muñoz P, Valerio M, de Alarcón A, Lepe JA, Miró JM, Gálvez-Acebal J, García-Pavía P, Navas E, Goenaga MA, Fariñas MC, Vázquez EG, Marín M, Bouza E; GAMES Study Group.

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Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an infrequent cause of severe infectious endocarditis (IE). The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and outcome of a series of cases of S. pneumoniae IE diagnosed in Spain and in a series of cases published since 2000 in the medical literature.We prospectively collected all cases of IE diagnosed in a multicenter cohort of patients from 27 Spanish hospitals (n = 2539). We also performed a systematic review of the literature since 2000 and retrieved all cases with complete clinical data using a pre-established protocol. Predictors of mortality were identified using a logistic regression model.We collected 111 cases of pneumococcal IE: 24 patients from the Spanish cohort and 87 cases from the literature review. Median age was 51 years, and 23 patients (20.7%) were under 15 years. Men accounted for 64% of patients, and infection was community-acquired in 96.4% of cases. The most important underlying conditions were liver disease (27.9%) and immunosuppression (10.8%). A predisposing heart condition was present in only 18 patients (16.2%). Pneumococcal IE affected a native valve in 93.7% of patients. Left-sided endocarditis predominated (aortic valve 53.2% and mitral valve 40.5%). The microbiological diagnosis was obtained from blood cultures in 84.7% of cases. In the Spanish cohort, nonsusceptibility to penicillin was detected in 4.2%. The most common clinical manifestations included fever (71.2%), a new heart murmur (55%), pneumonia (45.9%), meningitis (40.5%), and Austrian syndrome (26.1%). Cardiac surgery was performed in 47.7% of patients. The in-hospital mortality rate was 20.7%. The multivariate analysis revealed the independent risk factors for mortality to be meningitis (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.4-12.9; P < 0.01). Valve surgery was protective (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.04-0.4; P < 0.01).Streptococcus pneumoniae IE is a community-acquired disease that mainly affects native aortic valves. Half of the cases in the present study had concomitant pneumonia, and a considerable number developed meningitis. Mortality was high, mainly in patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Surgery was protective.

PMID: 26426629 [PubMed - in process]